Thursday, September 30, 2021

Mega-events physical activity legacy

 Article summary

We would like sport mega-events to leave lasting legacies in the communities than host them. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. The hosting city hopes to have tangible legacies, such as increased tourism; intangible ones, such as national pride; and affect the community's education, infrastructure, and activity levels. 

Theories used to study legacies of mega-events: 

  • Demonstration effect: Inspire physical activity from watching elite performers
  • Festival effect: Inspire physical activity through community enthusiasm and a convivial atmosphere. 
There is little evidence of prolonged increases in participation due to hosting mega-events. However, there is hope for cities to still impact the activity levels of their citizens when hosting sporting mega-events if the government 1) engages the community, 2) develops long-lasting strategies, and 3) coordinates efforts with stakeholders. 


Annear, M. J., Shimizu, Y., & Kidokoro, T. (2019). Sports mega-event legacies and adult physical activity: A systematic literature review and research agenda. European Journal of Sport Science, 19(5), 671–685.

86 comments:

  1. I love the idea that hosting a big time sporting event can lead to an increased interest in sports as to help build community. I also think about the many different ways that the economy can grow through hosting a big event (increase in foot traffic at restaurants, people staying in hotels, people attending other events in the area, etc.). The shirt you are wearing in this video is perfect because of the huge impact that hosting a super bowl can have on the overall well being of a city and can help bring in such excitement. Arizona has hosted a few super bowls now and the city will continue to be an option to host because it is a beautiful city with lots to do.

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  2. David Garrett
    Big time sporting events or mega events can be great for short term monetary gains, growing sports participation, and community involvement. The monetary benefits for local businesses is a great plus. The entire city or community can benefit through increased participation in city wide sports leagues or activities. I think these events are huge motivating factors for children to become involved in activities. I remember watching these events such as a world series or the Olympics, and being extremely excited to go out and play baseball or try the events seen in the games. These big events help inspire future generations to get involved for years of activities that will help them learn many values needed for life.

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  3. Grayson Hodges
    Mega events are definitely an interesting topic when it comes to long term effects. For example, since you brought up the olympics, I once did a study of the long term effects of hosting the Olympics. There are several cities that destroyed their urban community to make room for olympic venues, and then as soon as the games were over, they left the new stadiums/venues to rot. They did not give back to the city or use the venues for other things. These are called Olympic Ghosts. I also live close to Atlanta where the '96 summer Olympic Games were held and there is really not much evidence in the city that the games even happened there. There is one statue that I can think of, but really, if you didn't know what it was, you probably wouldn't guess it. Anyway, the short term effects of hosting can be great, but there are definitely questions about the long term.

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  4. Hi Dr. Benavides, Looking back I only remember L.A., Atlanta, and Salt Lake City Olympics being an economy builder for the local areas, perhaps Sydney, Australia and Vancouver were as well, I am not sure. It's exciting when the Olympics comes to a city nearby, everyone is always competing to get their city showcased. What I am noticing is the building of huge stadiums for these Olympic events only to find that afterwards it was a huge loss of money as they are often not used. In the US, Australia and Canada they usually add enhancements to the existing stadiums because they are already large so it's not quite as big of a loss to the local economy. There are a lot of repairs needed after such large events all over after these mega events. It would be interesting to see long term and short term financials on summer and winter Olympic cities and what they have had to go through.

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  5. commented as Steven Wise previously.

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  6. As a track and field fan, the Olympic Games hold a special place in my heart. Every 4 years I feel the excitement and emotion of the games no matter who is hosting. These mega-events certainly drive big money into communities and bring a bright spotlight along with them. With the amount of infrastructure and upfront financial costs of hosting the games, I would like to see a rotation of cities in the selection process so the legacies can be renewed with previous hosts without constantly demanding developing nations take the economic gamble on hosting. I feel like, in order to achieve a lasting impact on the populations there needs to be a more drawn-out model of inspiration instead of the bright burning window of a few years.

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  7. Roy Marshall
    Big-time sporting events beat out any event. They will always bring more income and exposure to the community more than any other event. A quick example for the past five years since I’ve been teaching high school I have always tried to push this small town that I work in to focus more on sports to bring in some revenue in exposure to our school that was always on the verge of being shut down. I used to ask them do they know how much money our local gas stations and local restaurants will make throughout the week literally everybody will be eating, Adults with businesses will have an increase in sales and the kids will have something that interests them that they will look forward to throughout the week. Sports is that big to people across the world so I can only imagine bringing a major world sporting event like the Olympics to any town. Of course, after the big time event leaves the town some towns don’t gain anything from it as far as the exposure down the line you’re looking for I do believe the people and the youth more than anything gain an experience they will never forget. We need something else besides Olympics like not quite the Olympics but mega sport eventing for the USA that touches every major city at least every other year. That 4-year window for the Olympics is just too far out for me as a sports junkie.

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  8. Melissa Field
    I think it is equally important the governing body awarding these cities the host rights, are diligently reviewing plans to ensure operationally efficient and sustainable plans. The IOC has taken steps to help minimize the negative impacts of hosting mega events with their Olympic Agenda 2020 (Future host election, Olympics.com). Requiring submissions include designs that will meet long term development goals as well as using existing venues. With these requirements and the increased assistance and expertise the IOC is providing, operating budgets have already shown a 20% reduction in cost for the winter 2026 games. These are positive moves in the right direction, long lasting strategies cannot come to fruition when cities are left in financial ruin post event.

    Olympics.com. Future host elections. https://olympics.com/ioc/future-host-election

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  9. Thomas Simmons
    Big time sporting events or large gatherings can be excellent for quick monetary gains
    And growing sports within the community, but also can hinder growth after that particular event has left town. Cities usually deploy tactics to beautify the city while the event is going on but once the crowd has left, the city returns to normal and so does the beautification process. Several other things play a major role in large sporting events security and covid-19, with times changing so rapidly sometimes sporting events aren’t such a great idea, especially since a lot of people aren’t vaccinated.

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  10. I always think that it is great for a city to host a big sporting event, because it helps them with revenue that they make from the fans that attends. The only issue is that once the fans and the sporting venue leaves they are unusually stuck with downfall off the financial gain during the event.

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  11. James Bell Mega sporting events are a benefit to the host city in a few ways. They not only bring the festive experience to the local community but also bring in revenue for them as well. The amount of money that is generated through taxes, food, travel, and lodging benefits the local community heavily. Sports teams build civic pride to the their community as these mega events do also. Typically at events like the Super Bowl and Championships there are activities that promote physical activity and inspire an active life. The event itself is usually involves the top players and athletes in the world, so the inspiring of physical activity can come to no surprise.

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  12. Julie Kelly
    I think mega sporting events can have great impact in a community. Sports bring people together like nothing else can. Not only does it give communities an opportunity to be part of something big, but also can also give them connections with others that they may not normally have. The pride that ensues from community sporting events is also valuable in attracting tourism as well as those who may desire to move into the community. Revenue can also impact local businesses and taxes collected can increase the quality of life in the community.

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  13. -Tyler Krone
    If the USOPC only presented the IOC with locales based on the participation levels of adults then they would be limited with places along the Pacific Coast, the Northeast, and Colorado. I assume the typical American viewer of the Olympics primarily only checks the medal count during the two-week event to ensure that the American athletes are atop the standings. Once the mega-event has concluded, their interests are on to the next event and they are not inclined to increase their physical activity.
    If the IOC was truly dedicated to the philosophies they want to the promote throughout the world, they would choose host cities to where the mega-event would have the most lasting impact. They should be willing, with cooperation from the local governments, to use revenue from their media contracts to finance the building of venues which can be used by the populate for a significant time after the games have left. Furthermore, the IOC needs to establish resources to promote physical activity and spike interest long before the games even begin in a host city.

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  15. Obviously, the landscape for mega-events has changed drastically since the onset of COVID-19. Thinking specifically about the 2020 (2021) Tokyo Olympics, the country was greatly divided on whether or not it was safe for the games to be held. Many citizens were upset at the dangers that hosting the games brought to their own back yard.
    I believe this will be another obstacle that public and private entities will need to address when trying to create positive sentiment among the community around any mega-event. If the community feels that bringing that many people into their community is a huge risk, they won't be for it, regardless of how "successful" the event might be.
    -Jordan Bailey

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  16. I look at what the World Cup did for women's soccer many years ago. This mega event changed the whole landscape of the sport. It brought women's soccer to the mainstream. Mega Events have the ability to change culture, which is what intrigues me the most. It's unfortunate that it took a mega event like this, but the change to the culture and landscape have been incredible.
    Jeremiah Robbins

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  17. Hi, I think it depends on the event. Some may have lasting legacies, but I agree that most probably do not. I think of Super Bowls. They draw a crowd and probably increase tourism for that particular year, but probably not for many years thereafter. However, mega events bring people together and that is always a great thing.
    Tracy Schimelfenig

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  18. Jada Ford
    I think it really depends on what event is taking place because different events attract difference people. Like NBA finals game will attract a ton of people especially during the holidays, people take off, prepare wedding proposals and so fourth. Now Mega events will attract a crowd itself and draw so many people together that is what makes the Mega event such a big deal and exciting because of the amount of people you may meet or have not seen in years that is the awesome thing about the Mega event.

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  19. I never thought about the physical impact that a mega event could have. I agree that if the leaders of that particular area promote the event and promote healthy lifestyles it could possibly lead to change. It definitely will take the entire community to work together to get those long lasting impacts from hosting events. It's important for the host cities, and individuals of the host city to not only think about the financial impact of these events but also the benefits it could have for members of the community from a health standpoint.

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  20. I think that major sporting events and mega events can be very beneficial to a city or a country even, but there is also the other side that may cause harm down the road after an event is done and over. When you think of the Olympics, you think about all the arens, stadiums and ceremony areas they had built or transformed. After the Olympics are over in a city or country, what happens to these buildings? They are often used very sparingly and end up costing more than they city or country made back in revenue. The same goes for the Super Bowl, this attracts large crowds and people come to spend money but often times businesses are still hurting for awhile after they games are over.

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  21. Hosting mega events such as the Olympics has the desired effect of creating long lasting legacies for future generations. In some cases this happens but I believe through what I have read that in most cases it can leave a legacy of financial burden to the population due to the increasingly enormous costs to host such events like the Olympics. One could argue if the costs of hosting a mega event was directly injected into local infrastructure and sporting organisations would we have a better legacy for the future?

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  22. Major sporting events can benefit host cities drastically. Hotels, restaurants, and other entities receive revenue from visitors and the city gets a good portion of that revenue through tax dollars. This money can be used for streets, police, fire, and/or parks and recreation.

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  23. Having the ability to host mega events is a major advantage to whoever is doing the hosting. There are many different organizations that have to possibility to benifit from hosting a mega event. This goes as low as a high school fighting to be able to host for the state tournament. There is always the idea that home field advantage would be there for those athletes or teams who compete from the place hosting. This can be for everything including support from the fan base. Money is also a major contributor to the benifits of hosting mega events. These events bring in revenue from hotels, food, and merchandise where multiple people are benifiting. The biggest example of this would be the Olympics where the country is benifiting overall from revenue.

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  24. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  25. Hello,

    They were discussing holding the Olympics in my state within 50 miles from where I live. At first I was enthusiastic about the prospect of hosting the Olympics. Once I started to look into the Olympics and how most of the time it bankrupts or causes serious economic harm to the city and the surrounding communities I was out. Not only that but the traffic and headache that it would cause my community outweighed any positives of having the Olympics.
    Anthony Bennett

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  26. I feel as though mega events that require infrastructure improvements such as new stadiums or arenas are more of a strain on the cities that host them than say an event such as the Super Bowl. Its long been discussed how hosting the Olympics saddles underdeveloped areas with buildings and playing fields that remain tenantless and therefore they become financial burdens or physical eyesores for the city.

    An event such as the Super Bowl, while it may interfere with some day to day operations like commuting, has largely positive effects for the host city. Local businesses and hotels boom during such mega events.

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  27. I feel mega events can be useful to provide jobs, generate money, and bring recognition to other things within the city. I agree that the legacy may not last, but if done right a community can for sure benefit from the event long after it is gone. It can bring light to hidden gems within the city, ignite a spark in a young athlete that wants to make sure their city is known. That may lead to more success stories, and people investing into the community.

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  28. I feel mega events can be useful to provide jobs, generate money, and bring recognition to other things within the city. I agree that the legacy may not last, but if done right a community can for sure benefit from the event long after it is gone. It can bring light to hidden gems within the city, ignite a spark in a young athlete that wants to make sure their city is known. That may lead to more success stories, and people investing into the community.

    Isaiah Cotton

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  29. Mega events are important to society to me. They are needed to bring people together to share a common interest. It increases pride in local teams or organizations. Anytime there is an opportunity to bring various amounts of people together sharing a common interest is a must and needs to be done more often. I hope this is something that never changes and continues to be apart of all sports especially.

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  30. Bringing big events to the city can bring in revenue for the city and also get people involved in the event. It also helps with jobs for people and allows for everyone to have similar interest. With each event there are many steps that incorporate many different aspects and many talents.

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  31. I really think that it depends on the event. I do believe that these effects can be long lasting, but the sport, along with the any attendees, has to provide a memorable experience. I also think that the use of any built/used facilities has to be feasible for the city. For instance, there is a large volleyball tournament in DC that happens regularly. I do not think that it makes or breaks the city nor the attendance. The Olympics, on the other hand, has a tendency to cause issues since the facilities that are built for the sports cannot be reused. The city dishes out tons of money and gets nothing in return after the games are over.

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  32. I believe the type of event and how the local or state governments plan for the future after the event not just the event itself. Atlanta did a decent job of using the stadium for the braves and now Georgia state university football. Stadiums in England after the olympics have been used for soccer. Infrastructure such as roads, or mass transit can really impact a community for the better if done correctly.

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  33. I think Mega events are great for the city, activity, and fans. The cities get a influx of people to eat, drink, and enjoy what the city has to offer. The "event" offers the fans to either see the activity in person on a huge stage or host a gathering at your home or in your area for community. This increase in local community will cause a influx of money.
    This post is from Nick DeWind

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  34. I think Mega events are good for a city and can bring a lot to the city that can help the cities out for a number of years down the road. I think have a city that has great national pride and looked at as a staple around the world is a great place for mega events to be held!!

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  35. Mega-events are a great thing for a city that already have the infrastructures in place for the events. If a city has to build the infrastructures for the mega-event, there is a major down side that it may hurt the city economically. For example, Rio and Montreal had to build majority of their infrastructures which has cost them so much money that is has economically set the city backwards. It took 30 years for Montreal to pay off the Olympic games that they hosted in the 1970s. They are not the first city to do that. In other cities, that had to change the location of places that were natural or change the city to just fit the Olympic games. There are plenty of positives that come out of the Olympics but there are also many negatives that comes with it that people do not realize.

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  36. Ryan Cassiday
    Big time games like the Olympics, Super Bowl, World Series, ect. is great for that city short term. Just because they cannot hold something that large often. The city would deny it if so. So much time and planning goes into play with these to where hosting 1 is big enough.

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  37. I see the coordinating with stakeholders as a very positive aspect. When you create and maintain positive relationships with stakeholders, it can help with future projects and situations in your community. It can help you reach out to these same stakeholders when there is another need or situation, and make the process easier and more efficient.

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  38. Cameron Martin
    I think that the demonstration effect is huge in engaging those around a mega-event in physical activity. But without it even being a mega event, I believe the demonstration effect creates an impulse to engage those around any event in a form of physical activity. Think about a high school football game, there are always little kids that try to make it to the back of the endzone either during the game or at halftime to try to play like the teenagers on the field. Then as those kids grow older and watch collegiate or professional sports they aspire to make it to the "big game" one day and their levels of physical activity increase again in order to "make it." Mega-events have that effect on a larger population, and can actually engage more people with sports they more than likely have never witnessed. Many times when I have watched different games during mega-events, like the Olympics, I've thought about if I could possibly do what these people are doing. My kids watched the diving and swimming competitions, and the next time we were at the pool they tried to dive with no splash and swim across the pool as fast as they could. Simply by watching people do these things, they themselves tried to engage in the same activity.

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  39. Mega events I feel like are great for cities and countries to grow pride and help the economy grow and to show off what they have to offer. For example the olympic games first shows great pride to a city and country that the committee offered them to host the olympics and brings people together in that city and country. The economy will grow becuase people from all over will come to that city to watch and spend money around the venue at places like hotels, restaurants, rental places and overall the city. this can help the city get out of depth and or improve things that need to be improved. lastly its always great for a city to show off what they have to offer and leave a good lasting impact on people who visit.

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  40. I think mega events are great for a community, but lasting impact from the mega event needs to incorporate stakeholders. The local community needs to be involved to have a lasting impact. Local authorities could get volunteers to be involved in the mega event. It could be a chance to close to the action and experience the event in a hold new level. For a mega event like the Olympics, a county could have areas not directly hosting the games involved in activities to support the games or add competitions between communities like the games. Lasting effect needs to involve stakeholders and have a great memory communities want to relive for years to come.
    Nick DeWind

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  41. I feel that mega events such as the Olympics are awesome to be able to show the whole world all of the different cultures and beautiful scenery that other places have to offer, but it seems that the longer term effects of a mega event have a negative impact on the surrounding community. There is a massive influx of resources and money put into preparing a place for it, but ultimately after the games, that place is left run down and abandoned because there is not enough resource to sustain it. I think more work needs to be put into making the facilities to better use after the event.

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  42. Mega events in the sporting world are exciting in a multitude of ways. They are great for the communities in which they are held in for many reasons. The economic impact is one of the biggest factors because you have fans from all over the world come to check out your community. It helps all of the businesses around in the area and can have a lasting effect depending on what type of event was held. when I look at events like the Super Bowl or the World Series, I can see the positive impact afterwards and there were no crazy costs that went into putting it on because they use existing stadiums. The Olympics and the world cup in most situations are the opposite and have huge construction costs just for most of the venues to sit abandoned after the event. Perhaps these countries and organizations could find permanent uses for these facilities after they have served their initial purpose.

    Jon Lewis

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  43. I am all for cities hosting major sporting events, while the financial benefits that major sporting events brings are short term I’m all for the community generating income from sporting events regardless if there short or long term events. The idea of the impact a sporting event can have for business and for the community living there can be major and in some cases life changing. Especially for the young youths of the community, you never know how a young child will react to witnessing a major sporting event in their city. It might spark a number of ideas and motivation. Los Angeles will be hosting the Olympic Games in 2828, and I can already imagine all of the surrounding business and communities and how they will benefit from the income that the games will bring. I also imagine the reaction many youths will have too seeing world class athletes competing on their city streets and how it will motivate them to peruse dream similar to those world class athletes.

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  44. Mega events are great for cities to host, especially those who may need an extra financial push. Creating an opportunity for fandom and national pride to flourish within one's own country could be extremely beneficial in the long run. While it is very cost to host a mega event, the pay out is worth it. Hotels, small and local business, and restaurants also benefit from cities hosting events such as the Super Bowl or the Olympics. It also creates jobs for many people.

    Anna Brock Hawkins

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  45. Committee planning is absolutely an area for improvement when it comes to creating intangible mega-event legacies. I think hosting countries and cities need to treat their locals like heroes. Offer the best volunteer roles in exchange for complimentary tickets, create focus groups with small business so they may offer ideas for achievable goals, and do not disregard the follow up. There are not only gaps in research but there are gaps in application and the most recent games were undoubtedly minimal help. Annear et al. (2019) focuses on the upcoming 2020 Olympics for the potential of fruitful literature adding to the legacy debate but due to Covid, I am sure the actual physical engagement locals experienced was dramatically reduced from past games. In sports, if you want to create engagement amongst fans, you will want to get them to a live event, and I think the same goes for building intangible legacies. Building on the theory of the festival effect, one cannot experience this type of community enthusiasm by sitting on the couch watching TV or streaming on a device. But the lack of physical fans and crowds turned Toyoko 2020 from a possible case study to a black hole of useless data. The world hopes to never see another mega event with zero spectators and spending time analyzing the legacies from this past event, tangible or intangible will most likely have negative results for building legacies sue to the hurdles and roadblocks of a national pandemic.
    Melissa Field

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  46. Mega-events provide opportunities for the local businesses to experience increased traffic and business. While the hosting of these mega events can be costly and lead to increased unnecessary spending, the return on the investments for the surrounding businesses such as restaurants, hotels, taxi services, and other necessary businesses. The impact of mega events to local businesses cannot be understated.

    Brian Cole, 11/7/21, Current Readings

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  47. I'm still on the fence as to whether Mega-Events such as the Olympics truly have a positive impact on a city for the long-term. It has to be the right time, right city and done correctly. We have all read about and heard of the cities who have facilities that have been wasting away since the city hosted the games. Watching their investment and hope of revitalizing their city decay before their eyes. On the flip side we cities who invest in the games and make decisions that will benefit their city and its citizens in the long-term. They invest or upgrade facilities, improve the cities roadways and upgrade transportation along with working with investors/developers to utilize the spaces that were used in the Olympic games. I don't know that there are many people going on vacations just to visit a city that hosted the games once or twice. Mega-events are undoubtedly successful in the short term but it isn't a guarantee that the success will be sustainable in the long-term.

    James Hoffman, 11/7/21, Current Readings

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  48. I think Mega events are great for the city, activity, and fans. The cities get a influx of people to eat, drink, and enjoy what the city has to offer. The "event" offers the fans to either see the activity in person on a huge stage or host a gathering at your home or in your area for community. This increase in local community will cause a influx of money.

    Nicholas DeWind, 11/7/21, Current Readings

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  49. I would agree that mega events are helpful for a city since it brings in new tourism whether its from fans of the sport even people who saw the city on television and decided they wanted to see the city in person. I would also say that not every city can benefit from hosting a mega event in their city because some cities just aren't large enough to hold that many people entering or staying in that city. That large influx of people could cause traffic jams, wrecks, food shortage in grocery stores, and many other issues that could be possible from a large group of people coming into a city very quickly.

    Sean Adams, 11/11/2021, Current Readings

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  50. I believe hosting a mega sporting event is a great thing a community can invest in with positive outcomes impacting its citizens. The first thing I think of when a city hosts a mega event is the growth the economy will receive. Economically, when hosting a meg event people will come from across the country and around the world to attend and the foot traffic the city will have will give a boost to the city finically. The next thing I think of is the demonstration effect on the community from hosting a mega event. Athletes competing at the highest level that kids look up to will spark interest in the youth to get involved in the sport. Also, the event may interest individuals who never thought they will like the sport. I think there more positive outcomes than negative when hosting a mega sporting event.

    David Fluellen 11/14/2021, Current Readings

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  51. Bringing mega sporting events to any area can be a major boost to tourism and ultimately the bottom line for some areas. I am the Director of my County's Recreation Department and am very involved with bringing outside organizations into Floyd (Travel softball, travel basketball, community events, concerts, etc.) Floyd already has a world renowned event (Floyd Fest) that brings tens of thousands of people from across the world to our little County in the mountains. These events can cause great positive impact from both a PR standpoint and from a tax revenue standpoint.

    Jacob Agee 11/14/2021, Current Readings

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  52. I believe that mega sporting events are intriguing to learn more about. Whenever I think of mega sporting events, my first thoughts are the Olympic Games like you mentioned in the video. But additionally, the Super Bowl, the Final Four, the College Football Playoffs, even Playoff Baseball or the World Series have the ability to create community through the festival effect.

    The town where I live is one of the few "cities" in my mostly rural state, so I would say our mega events would be the state basketball tournaments that we host nearly every year. We have organizations and groups dedicated to raising money to help cover the costs of this event so that we can win the bid process every year. We understand that the community as a whole benefits economically and community wise with these large events coming to town. It creates an buzz around town and has the ability to provide a real economic boost.

    I am all for hosting mega events (even scaled down for lower population areas) because they can create so many benefits for the hosts.

    Sean Ryan 11/24/2021, Current Readings

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  53. Big time sporting events or mega events can be great for short term monetary gains, growing sports participation, and community involvement. The monetary benefits for local businesses is a great plus. The entire city or community can benefit through increased participation in city wide sports leagues or activities. I think these events are huge motivating factors for children to become involved in activities. I remember watching these events such as a world series or the Olympics, and being extremely excited to go out and play baseball or try the events seen in the games. These big events help inspire future generations to get involved for years of activities that will help them learn many values needed for life. Keith Jones current readings

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  54. I love the idea of hosting a mega event. From my experience when you plan everything out and market correctly you can achieve all of your goals. In this new age people are looking to be entertained more than usual. The mega event spectators need something outside of the event to enjoy. I went to a basketball event that had over 300 teams involved and when your team wasn't playing the director of the event had his board create things for teams to do in the city when they were not playing. Historical landmarks, food ideas, nice sites to see, all away from the venue. On the venue site they had bouncy houses and other games for kids of all ages as well as adults. It was well planned out and would have been bigger if covid had not cancelled a year and restrictions hindering its return.

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  55. Any mega event is interesting to learn about, I don't think that many understand all the things that go into planning mega event. This goes for myself as well. After I learned all that is part of the process of the Olympics, it's no wonder a city or country has to bid years in advance. It's a complete process. We see the importance of mega events and how enjoyable it is for all, this includes the venue, activities and sport. After seeing the impact, the WNBA is having on the young girls and generation, it amazes me that this league is becoming more and more powerful. The WNBA Finals is a mega event and its viewings went up 64% since last year.

    China Davis-Current Readings Fall 2

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  56. I could not agree more about having big sporting events to energize a community. I played baseball in the Northwoods League, which is located Madison, Wisconsin. There is not much baseball in this area, so this team located in the heart of Madison brings people out like no other. We averaged around 3,000 fans a game and had a high of 6,500 fans one game. Having this gave the community a team to stand behind and stick together with. People from all over the city would be walking around wearing Mallards gear, and if someone found out you played for them; you would be treated like a celebrity. I say all that to stress the importance of a big sporting event that communities can stand behind. It for sure brought the Madison area together after a year of COVID shutdown.

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  57. Mega sporting events are fascinating to study because of the extreme duality of them. One one hand they elicit extreme nationalism, increase tourism, and have a big impact on local economies in the short term. However, the extreme financial investment and lack of long term gain makes them a huge pill to swallow for countries or cities when thinking about hosting an event. I believe mega event organizations should have a more stringent requirement for host cities to show that the infrastructure for the event will be viable long term and not just for the singular event. For example LA is a great place to host the Olympics because most of the infrastructure is used annually for sporting events and concerts. The coliseum, USC and UCLA facilities are just a number of infrastructure pieces already built in LA. The city isn't building everything from the ground up just for the Olympics as other cities have done. Now this does limit the amount of places you can have the games which is somewhat against the core values of the Olympics, but this model would go a long way in making sure cities don't have a huge financial and infrastructure burden years after the spotlight is off their city.

    Jimmie Johnson III- Current Readings Fall 2

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  58. Logan Burton-Current Readings-Week 7

    I was fairly oblivious to the fact that these "mega-events" were not promoting long term success for participation until the photos and articles came out about how the 2016 Olympic facilities have declined over the years due to not being properly maintained. We flood these countries every four years and give a huge spike in the economy for 1-2 months, but then as quickly as the world arrived, we vanish and leave these countries to sort it out on their own, failing to properly teach them how to take these facilities and use them to propel their national sports organizations to the next level. The IOC needs to spend time AFTER the games ensuring that those they are leaving in charge of these facilities understand how to maintain and promote usage of the new facilities to create a situation that will benefit the countries for years to come. It will be interesting to see what they committee does to help the Dakar YOG Committee to ensure the same issues don't occur with the Dakar 2026 youth games that took place after 2016.

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  59. This blog post brings to mind mega events I've seen on tv and experienced in real life. It also brings to mind the extension of mega events, as I like to say. I was able to attend a playoff game during one of the Cleveland Cavaliers finals runs back in 2015. This event brought so much economic value to the City of Cleveland and its businesses. In addition to this, I attended the Championship Parade in 2016 which I would consider an extension of a mega event being the NBA Playoffs/Finals. One of the ultimate mega events we experience in the world is the Olympics. While it generates great media and financial attention throughout the time the events are played, often times the detriments of wasted infrastructure are common no matter the city or country. Hopefully one day, there can be more parity with the Olympics where smaller cities can take advantage of the positive economic impact. In that same breath, hopefully cities are able to utilize the newly constructed buildings that are constantly put up leading up to the Olympics. Too many times, you see dilapidated buildings years after the Olympics take place in so many cities.

    Corey Elliott

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  60. Jake Mackey

    When examining mass sporting events, its impossible to ignore the vast gains that cities can gain from hosting the events. From the Olympics, to the Super Bowl, massive College bowl games, and the Final Four, the cities that host these massive events see huge increases in revenue from hotels, restaurants, popular tourist events, and more.
    It's also important to notice the amount of work it takes to get ready for these events. For example, for the Olympics and Super Bowl, these events' locations are announced years and years in advance. They must have ample amounts of time in order to get the job done and allow it to actually be a positive event for their community.

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  61. Some of the desired legacies for Mega-events are the increased activity levels of the population. This is a good metric to judge these events. Ideally, citizens will have a desire to connect with the events and improve personal physical activity levels. I think this is a worthy goal. As these studies have demonstrated, this is difficult to calculate. One thing I would really like to see is improved infrastructure foreseeability for events like the Olympic games. A major aspect of the legacy of the games is an effective upkeep and/or repurposing of the hosting city event locations. It is tragic that many of these facilities fall into a state of disrepair once the games leave. Often, the infrastructure becomes a burden on the host city. When judging the legacy of these events, more importance should be given to this aspect of the games. Physical infrastructure is quantifiable and should be an important facet of Olympic planning strategies.
    Ben Keddington

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  62. Matthew Earnest Current Readings Week 6 Bonus Points

    As someone who has been interested in the sports management field for a long time, this is a topic that has always intrigued me. I have always believed that a city hosting a major event would be a great thing for that city. However, recently I tend to agree that it might not always be a good thing for the city. It takes a lot of work to have a major event in their location. It takes a lot of people work together, years of preparation, and a lot of money to make it happen. A lot of things have to happen right to have a successful time. Especially nowadays with covid-19 going on the people that usually would be traveling from other countries might not come due to that. However, having an event like the Olympics does have a great chance giving the city the ability to have a lot of people travel there and for them to get recognition during the whole time of the process. If I was the mayor of a major city, it would be a tough decision on whether or not to try to have this process happen in my city.

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  63. Mega sporting events are usually very popular when involving fans and media. Usually, the bigger the event, the more revenue is expected to be brought in. I am originally from Cleveland, and I went to undergrad in northeast Ohio. In 2016, I was able to experience the Cleveland Cavaliers championship parade. I was also able to be downtown during Game 1 of the World Series with the Indians and the Cubs. That night was also opening for the Cavaliers, and the night that they received their championship rings and banner. While at Kent State, I watched our men's basketball team win the MAC and qualify for the NCAA Tournament. Seeing the financial benefits of success in these mega sporting events is undeniable. From the NBA Finals, to the World Series, to a NCAA March Madness tournament game, there is a significant amount of revenue generated for the hosting cities. These events are so beneficial not only for the cities involved but the fans as well.

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  64. Mega sporting events are usually very popular when involving fans and media. Usually, the bigger the event, the more revenue is expected to be brought in. I am originally from Cleveland, and I went to undergrad in northeast Ohio. In 2016, I was able to experience the Cleveland Cavaliers championship parade. I was also able to be downtown during Game 1 of the World Series with the Indians and the Cubs. That night was also opening for the Cavaliers, and the night that they received their championship rings and banner. While at Kent State, I watched our men's basketball team win the MAC and qualify for the NCAA Tournament. Seeing the financial benefits of success in these mega sporting events is undeniable. From the NBA Finals, to the World Series, to a NCAA March Madness tournament game, there is a significant amount of revenue generated for the hosting cities. These events are so beneficial not only for the cities involved but the fans as well.

    Catrell Simpson

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  65. Mega sporting events are generally events that are widely publicized and talked about for many months in advance. For instance, the Olympics are perhaps the largest of the "mega" events we have around the globe. The Olympics can take decades to prepare for. Mega Sporting events generally create MASSIVE financial impacts for the locations hosting. Although the Olympics may not provide a "direct" ROI, the tax revenue pumped into surrounding localities benefit the local economy for eons after the games conclude. The jobs created, foot traffic in stores and direct income from the games are a massive benefit to the host city. I think these kinds of events are incredibly fruitful for whoever hosts.. Whether it be the Olympics, Super Bowl, NCAA March Madness, or any number of other large events.

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  66. Mega events are typically a "blip" in the history of the host city. There may be memorable moments that result from something during the event, but for the most part, when the event ends, the glamour and allure that brought people to the event is gone. The economic boom fades as the fans who traveled to take in the event go back to where they came from. The athletes or performers depart and move on to the next event. Again, there may be memories made, but there are few lasting impacts from hosting mega events.

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  67. Hosting mega events such as the World Cup and Olympics have always seemed like exciting opportunities to me, however, that sentiment has changed as I have learned more about them and how they affect the host cities. An extreme, but relevant example that comes to mind is the thousands of people that were displaced when Brazil destroyed hundreds of favelas surrounding the site of the 2014 World Cup final, the Maracana. These favelas were destroyed during renovations on the Maracana while preparing it for the World Cup and in effort to "clean up" the surrounding area. These instances are heartbreaking and have tainted my view on hosting mega events.

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  68. Hosting a mega event in history is always a privilege and an honor for a hosting country. However, I believe that ultimately they can cause more harm than good for the country. Most countries are forced to spend millions of dollars to either renovate an older stadium or must build an entirely new stadium. After these countries spend enormous amounts of money on the proper criteria the committee requires, most stadiums and buildings are left with no use. Cities that have held Olympics and currently experience these issues include Rio and Atlanta. To further encourage future cities from holding such an important event, the committee should attempt to reduce the amount of work required to host an event or help with the cost that a city endures while preparing for the event.

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  69. Hosting mega events are a good thing, but there should be a contract or a follow up after the fact, to ensure those cities aren't left in mess and shambles. These events will offer extra jobs to those in need and jobs to the ones who are looking for one. So it'll be entertainment and income from these hosted events. Also, it will bring a nationwide exposure to different sport. Not every sport is known worldwide, this will give countries to get to know one game and find a interest in that game to bring it back to their country.

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  70. I feel that a major emphasis on these events should be the long lasting effects of the events. This has not been the case in the past which is why I feel that an emphasis on having a lasting effect for years to come, not just months which quickly fades, should be a larger emphasis. For example, when the olympics come to a city, there is a short time increase in exercise in that city/region. With the current obesity problems that plague most parts of the United States, having a long last effect that can get people to continue to exercise more will be hugely beneficial for the country as a whole. -alan lamar

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  71. Eric Holt
    I understand that there is little evidence of a lasting effect on participation, especially from the Olympic games. I believe much of this is due to poor implementation of the games. Many cities and countries place the olympic village and infrastructure outside of the main part of the country, rather than implementing it into existing cities. I've said this multiple times, but Salt Lake City built infrastructure for the 2002 Olympic games in partnership with cities, to allow them to use the buildings, ski resorts, and more after they were done with the games. This has lead to a significant increase in access to sports opportunities because of the games. I believe it is possible, even though it doesn't happen enough.

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  72. I think mega events such as the Olympics should shift their focus going forward and try to help host cities make lasting changes rather than just the short-term benefits, we are currently seeing. There may be huge economic bumps in the short-term leading up to the games and while they are happening. However, looking at developing long term programs that will help the citizens of these host countries continue to see long term use out of these large structures.

    Karsten Leigvold

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  73. I think that mega events like the Olympics or the Super Bowl have great potential to have positive legacies. I believe however those legacies depend upon the planning of the event. These events bring about a great amount of revenue to cities and play a pivotal role in the economic development of that host city. It is an honor to host these mega-events and in order to have a positive outcome all hands need to be involved and strategic planning must take place. There have been some instances of negative outcomes from mega-events like the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia with the Centennial Park bomber incident. This is a prime example of my point of insuring that all hands are on deck and making sure a plan is in place for the athletes and spectators to not only have an enjoyable experience, but a safe one as well.

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  74. Wesley Arthur


    Mega events in my opinion do not have a positive effect on people because they are not actively planned or framed for the good of the communities around them. From a micro prospective I lived in Richmond, VA when the World Cycling Race came and I watched as the city actively worked to prepare the area for the race from. New streets paved, bridges repaired , bike lanes created and new side walks. All things created for the competition that lasted nearly two weeks. Less then 5 years later the event itself is a forgotten moment in the history of the city. The institutions who were involved with the development of the event did not partner with community leaders to assess effective legacy outcomes. Many of the actors involved did not promote participation nor actively looked for communication with the city's inhabitants. while leading up to the event the city sees the influx of revenue but does not match the financial output needed to host the event.

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  75. When I think about a city hosting a mega event, I think about Omaha hosting the college baseball world series every year. I have gotten the chance to attend the last three years. I believe Omaha greatly benefits from hosting this event every year. The local restaurants and tourist attractions such as the zoo gain a lot more business during the two weeks of hosting this mega event. Omaha also host little league tournaments during this time which brings in more revenue. I believe the CWS also has a positive impact on the locals of the community as well. Many locals buy complete books of tickets and attend many of the games. The negative downside to hosting this mega event would be the increase of traffic in the city and wait times at local restaurants. Overall though, I believe hosting mega events brings a positive impact to the hosting city.

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  76. Mega Events for cities are a big deal. As we know from the studies it takes a lot of planning, resources and execution by lot of people. One question i would have for cities outside of L.A. and New York is how do you decide when the time is right to look into it? I cant think of my original city of Nashville and how in the last 20 years it has gone from 1 professional sports team to now 3 and how the population has boomed as well. Combine this with hosting NCAA tournaments, Nascar cup races, soccer playoff game in the future. The biggest thing nashville hosted was the NFL draft and it was a roaring success. It makes me wonder if we are gearing up for a world cup or olympics even. I think sometimes researchers talk about all the data leading up to mega events but forget about the stepping stones in place.
    John Cauthen

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  77. I believe having Mega Events is such a great idea, especially for communities and cities who need more community events to get locals more engaged and involved. I truly believe this could help a city financially in many ways as well and bring attention to many cities that may go unnoticed. I think in order to have a better and lasting effect on cities, program organizers need to market, plan, and implement strategies to get people out more. I think on an Olympic scale, more work should be done to get more lasting effects in a hometown that hosts it. I personally, am still unsure if an event like this will draw crowds from other areas in the future to continue visiting.
    This comment was made by Saint Blizzard

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  78. Brian Davis- Bonus Points- Hosting mega events in a popular area could boost the local economy and build a new infrastructure like the 1996 Olympics did for Atlanta Georgia. Atlanta has really flourished since the Olympics left in 1996.

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  79. Markell Clark - Bonus Points - I believe that hosting mega events is such a good idea in theory. Events like the Olympics Games are an opportunity for the entire world to come together and see what another city/country has to offer when they watch their respective country compete with athletes from the around the world. It can be a eye opener to some viewers who have never taken the time to look into the host city's culture. What mega events also do is bring a lot of revenue in for businesses in the surrounding areas. I believe all of this is good in theory, however you run into trouble when you think about all of the infrastructure that gets left behind when the games have concluded. If host sites could find a way to use these structures after the games, then they would be fine. However, that usually doesn't happen and it can create unnecessary problems.

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  80. Bonus Points---Tony Jones Physical activity is something that could be a major issue with mega events. Mega events help promote wellness and various issues with sporting to bring business. There have been many different games that would bring revenue within a certain situation. Athletes have a great chance at more exposure within mega events like you have mentioned. I think this would keep many people entertained.

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